You will write a 6-page (double-spaced) historiographic paper that puts in conversation the 4 books we discussed during the term. You will summarize and analyze what each author contends about the history of Afro-Mexicans and compare their arguments. Then you will take a critical stand and formulate your own argument about what you have read during the term. The assignment is intended to encourage you to develop critical reading skills for comparing secondary sources. You will summarize, analyze, and compare these works. You will be graded on your ability to identify the major themes in each of these secondary sources and your ability to compare and contrast them. Historians disagree about how to interpret the past. The differences reflect the varying approaches that historians take to their subject, as some of them might be more interested in social, cultural, or economic history. They might approach their work from different views as well, which affects the ways in which historians interpret the past. Historians examining the same historical event might analyze different primary sources to answer the same question. In this paper, you will identify, compare, and evaluate the viewpoints of the four authors we have read during the course. Reading the source: Write draft parts as you read Make sure to record the full bibliographical information (CITATION) of all books at the Works Cited/Bibliography section: First, SKIM the readings to get a general idea of their organization and content. Then, READ ACTIVELY, marking and annotating relevant passages in the texts (things you may want to cite in your paper), and taking notes on their use of sources and arguments. Finally, REREAD passages that are either particularly promising (so you are sure you understood them in order to write about them) or too difficult to comprehend (and they may be key to understand the whole). Determine the author’s thesis: Active readers begin by identifying the author’s thesis –the conclusion that the author reached. The quickest way to identify an authors’ thesis is to read the introduction and conclusion of an article or a book. It is usually in these sections that an author states the main points. Read with the author’s thesis in mind: Because the historians’ goal is not simply to collect facts but to organize and interpret them in a way that allows us to better understand the past, read with an eye to understanding how the author builds an argument in support or his or her interpretation. You should identify the main pieces of evidence the author cites in support of his or her conclusions. Often, the first sentence (or topic sentence) of the body paragraphs will indicate the most important elements of the argument. Write as you read, as seen next: READ ACTIVELY: write drown notes as a draft, in a paper or in your computer, from the readings. You will need to elaborate as a draft the following parts while writing the paper: CITATIONS: You are required to cite one sentence (no more than three lines) from each of the works in your paper. When you utilize the ideas and words of another person, you are required to include citations. You must cite within your text and include a bibliography or works cited section at the end. Lack of citations in your written work would lower grade. CONTENTS: Summarize the main ideas of the four texts. Writing summaries showing not all of the contents of a document, but what you consider are the most important aspects, is a central task in many jobs. It is not necessary here to write full sentences but the keywords describing the main themes –a draft. CONNECTIONS: Connect the readings with the lectures, film and reading from week 6. This will improve your grade. CONCLUDE: Think conclusions based on the evidence provided by these writings. Once you have answered the basic questions about the texts, you may go beyond in order to discuss the significance of each of these writings and compare each other. Writing the paper Title: Put a title other than “Final paper” or “Historiographic paper”. Instead put a title that has a verb in the sentence, which denotes action. First Paragraph: INTRODUCTION. Introduce all the books. Do not repeat bibliographical citation here. Introduce what is your main point in comparing these texts. Do the authors tend to agree with each other or disagree? Do the authors tend to rely on similar arguments and evidence? What interpretative frameworks or lines of reasoning are found in these writings? Which text do you support and why? If you support one of these authors, you may criticize the others. Paragraphs 2-5 (or more): Summarize each of the books and relate their main points. Describe their viewpoints. Note the most important evidence presented by each author to support their claims. Evaluate the authors’ use of evidence and describe how they deal, if they do, with counterevidence. Are their arguments convincing? Do in-text citation of each text to support your analysis. Last paragraph: Conclusion. Finalize your thoughts on all writings connecting what you put in your introduction with the other paragraphs.