The paper will be a research paper in which you will select a current criminal justice practice, determine an applicable criminological theory that apply to it, a This research paper will be approximately ten (10) pages. Cite as least five scholarly articles found in Criminal Justice databases while researching your term paper. The term paper should follow the below format: Introduction - Introduce the topic Literature Review - Present relevant literature Discussion - Must be factually based from your literature review Conclusion - What you have concluded based on the facts you have reviewed. References In addition, to the CJ practice, you must attach an applicable criminological theory to the practice. Below is a list of theories but there are much more: The Classical School Cesare Beccaria Criminal behavior is rational Weighting the cost and benefits of actions Fear of punishment is a deterrence (severity, certainty, speed) Punish should fit the crime CJS should be predictable (laws and punishment) Positivist Criminology Science could help reveal why offenders committed crimes and how they could be rehabilitated Used science to study the body, mind, and environment Human behavior is controlled by physical, mental, and social factors, not by free will Considers biological, psychological, and social factors as influencing behavior Biological: physical traits distinguish criminals from law-abiding citizens (huge jaws, high cheekbones) Psychological: criminal behavior caused by mental condition, personality disturbance (uncontrollable impulses), or limited intellect Sociological: criminality is not inborn but caused by external factors (poverty, poor education, bad housing, etc.) Social structure theories Criminal behavior is related to social class Lower class suffers from poverty, poor education, and lack of political power Anomie Rules and norms that guide behavior have weakened or disappeared Deviant behavior occur since they cannot achieve goals Social process theories: assumes that any person, regardless of education, class, or upbringing, has the potential to become a criminal Learning theories: people imitate and learn from one another Differential association: behavior is learned through interactions with others, especially family members (older brother is involved) Control theories: criminal behavior is restrained by ties to family, church, school, and peer groups Labeling theories: Social control agencies label certain people as outside the normal, law abiding community. People come to believe it the label is true Critical criminology: Criminal law and CJS are primarily a means of controlling the lower classes, women, and minorities Social conflict theory: crime result of conflict in society, such as conflict between economic classes caused by the elite Feminist theory: Ignoring or undervaluing women’s experience as offenders, victims, and people subjected to decision making by CJ officials There are many more theories: Neutralization Instrumental Structural Propensity Trajectory Age-Graded Deterrence Here are some of the criminal justice practices that was mentioned in our textbook. The text book is called Media and Crime in the U.S. by Yvonne Jewkes and Travis Linnemann. SQF, Boot Camp, Drug courts, DARE, POP, COP, Back End Sentencing, Federal Sentencing Guidelines, K.C. Experiment, CCTV, Legalizing Drugs, Victim Service Programs, “Stand Your Ground” Law, Probation, Parole, Community Court, Faith Based Treatment, Operation Ceasefire, Cincinnati Initiative, Exclusionary Rule, Miranda Warning, Scared Straight, Death Penalty, Specialized DUI Court, Three Strikes, Sex Registration/Notification Laws, Plea Bargaining, Victim Compensation Program, etc. Here there are more criminal justice practices to choose from such as Stop, Question and Frisk practice, bail practice, DARE program/practice, Scared Straight program/practice, Boot camp program/practice, Three Strikes practice, etc. To go over once more you have to select one current criminal justice practice listed above, determine and applicable criminological theory that applies to it, and evaluate its affectiveness.