Study Guide 2 Directions: Answer the questions below, briefly and in your own words. DO NOT CUT AND PASTE. Highlight your answer so I can see them easily. CHAPTER 5: ENERGY 1. How does energy flow through the ecosystem? 2. What is ATP? 3. What is photosynthesis? What organisms do it? What is the equation? 4. What is aerobic respiration? What organisms do it? What is the equation? 5. How are photosynthesis and aerobic respiration related? 6. What is fermentation? What products are formed in human muscle cells? In yeast? CHAPTER 6: DNA AND GENE EXPRESSION 1. What is DNA? 2. What is a chromosome? 3. What is a gene? 4. Name the two steps of protein production. CHAPTER 7: BIOTECHNOLOGY 1. What is a mutation? What causes them? 2. What is a GMO? Name 3 plant GMOs. What new trait does each GM plant have? 3. What is CRISPR? Has it been used to edit human embryos? 4. What will 23andme tell you about yourself based on your DNA? CHAPTER 8: CELL DIVISION 1. How do prokarotes divide? 2. In eukaryotes, what are somatic and reproductive cells? 3. Which type of eukaryotic cells do mitosis? Be able to look up what happens in each phase of mitosis. 4. What is nondisjunction? Know whether the following individuals are: male/female, fertile/sterile, have any distinguishing characteristics: XXX, XXY, XYY, and XO. CHAPTER 9: INHERITANCE 1. What is an allele? 2. What are dominant and recessive alleles? 3. What do homozygous and heterozygous mean? 4. What are genotype and phenotype? 5. Genetic problems. Be able to answer a question like the following: If one parent is heterozygous (Aa) and the other is homozygous recessive (aa), what is the probability a child will have the recessive trait (aa)? 50% What if both parents are heterozygous? 25% 6. How many alleles are there for blood type? Who are universal donors? Universal recipients? 7. Blood type problems. Be able to answer a question like the following: A woman who is blood type A has a child who is blood type O. She accuses a man who is blood type B of being the father. Can he be? 8. What is a sex-linked trait? Name one. Is a recessive sex-linked trait is recessive more likely to show up in males or females?