Students are graded based upon whether their answers demonstrate that they have completed the reading assignments and not whether their answers are correct or incorrect. If the student provides support for their answer from the reading assignments, full credit will likely be assigned. Answer all of the questions, unless instructed otherwise. 1) Du Bois discussed some of the differences between races. For example, Du Bois stated: “We find upon the world’s stage today eight distinctly differentiated races, in the sense in which History tells us the word must be used.” Du Bois also stated: “What, then, is a race? It is a vast family of human beings, generally of common blood and language, always of common history, traditions and impulses, who are both voluntarily and involuntarily striving together for the accomplishment of certain more or less vividly conceived ideals of life” (Du Bois 1897:53). Based upon Du Bois’s essay and the article “Race as Biology Is Fiction, Racism as a Social Problem Is Real: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives on the Social Construction of Race” by Smedley and Smedley (2005), do you believe that the concept of race as it is understood today in the U.S. is based on biological distinctions? Explain your answer. Answer A OR B 2) A) Du Bois wrote the “The Conservation of Races” in 1897. This was during a time when it was not illegal to discriminate based upon race. Du Bois acknowledged some of the challenges facing Black people at that time by stating: “It is necessary, therefore, in planning our movements, in guiding our future development, that at times we rise above the pressing, but smaller questions of separate schools and cars*, wage-discrimination and lynch law,** to survey the whole question of race in human philosophy and to lay, on a basis of broad knowledge and careful insight, those large lines of policy and higher ideals which may form our guiding lines and boundaries in the practical difficulties of every day” (Du Bois 1897:51-52). Later in the essay, Du Bois advocated for the development of “race organizations: Negro colleges, Negro newspapers, Negro business organizations, a Negro school of literature and art, and an intellectual clearing house, for all these products of the Negro mind, which we may call a Negro Academy. Not only is all this necessary for positive advance, it is absolutely imperative for negative defense. Let us not deceive ourselves at our situation in this country. Weighted with a heritage of moral iniquity from our past history, hard pressed in the economic world by foreign immigrants and native prejudice, hated here, despised there and pitied everywhere; our one haven of refuge is ourselves, and but one means of advance, our own belief in our great destiny, our own implicit trust in our ability and worth” (Du Bois 1897:58). Should we read Du Bois’s essay in the context of the era in which it was written and take into account the constrictions that he as a Black American might have been working within? What do you believe Du Bois might say about race in the United States if he were alive today? OR B) As social scientists, we often divide people into groups to study their differences. Do you believe that it is useful to divide people into racial categories for the purposes of social science research? For example, if we want to study why some people are reluctant to receive a COVID-19 vaccination, would it be useful to group people according to races, such as Black and White or should we focus on other characteristics, such as culture or ethnicity? Smedley and Smedley (2005: 17-18 and 23-24) might be helpful with this answer. *This is likely a reference to railway or train cars and perhaps other types of public transportation. **”Lynchings were violent public acts that white people used to terrorize and control Black people in the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly in the South. Lynchings typically evoke images of Black men and women hanging from trees, but they involved other extreme brutality, such as torture, mutilation, decapitation, and desecration. Some victims were burned alive. . . . From 1882 to 1968, 4,743 lynchings occurred in the U.S., according to records maintained by NAACP.” (NAACP. 2021. “History of Lynching in America. ” https://naacp.org/find-resources/history-explained/history-lynching-america. Refer to the rubric in the "My Grades" content area for information concerning the criteria your instructor will use to grade your Discussion Board participation.