Post two replies of at least 450 words each by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday, except
Post two replies of at least 450 words each by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday, except replies for the third Discussion which are due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Friday of the final Module: Week. For each thread and reply, analysis must be supported with a minimum of 3 scholarly sources other than the course textbook and materials. Each source must be cited in current APA format. Each thread and each reply must include both full citations in a reference list at the end of each post, and short-form in-text citations. Acceptable sources include books, legal and business journals, legal cases, the law (cases, statutes, regulations, etc.), the Bible, biblical commentary, etc. Dictionaries and other web sources that lack scholarly support are not acceptable sources. Any sources cited must be current to the issue (e.g. Bible commentaries may by applicable from any age, but articles discussing current legal or healthcare practices may no longer be relevant after 5 or 10 years). A well-developed, complete worldview analysis of the situation requires more than simply adding a Bible verse at the end of the post. Each thread must include at least 2 separate verses from Scripture, quoted and applied as an integral part of the discussion of the applicable issues in the context of a biblical worldview. Each reply will include at least 1 Scripture verse integrated in the same manner. 1. Case Study Wisdom Kumah School of Business, Liberty University Author Note Wisdom Kumah I have no known conflict of interest to disclose. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Wisdom Kumah. Email: wkumah@liberty.edu Case Study The decision to set up a business is just the beginning step of many steps. Kubasek et al. (2020) posit that “deciding what form of business to create is one of the most important decisions a business makes” (p. 463). There are different forms of business ownership. These include sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, an LLC, and a joint venture. Each form of business ownership may be created according to the business needs. From this case, a sole proprietorship and partnership may not be the ideal business ownership for Shania. For a sole proprietorship business, funding for the business is limited to the personal funds of the owner, and liabilities for all debts are unlimited hence. Partnership business will create personal liabilities for all partners and Shania may be liable for the liabilities of other partners. A joint venture acts just like a partnership and has unlimited liabilities. Disputes between the partners may stunt the growth of the business. Corporations are legal entities and can sue and be sued. They are great for tax advantages, but their complex nature requires extra expenditures to run. This form of business ownership is mostly practiced by large companies such as Walmart, and Nike, among others hence may not be suitable for Shania’s coffee shop. The ideal form of business ownership that will match Shania’s needs is the limited liability company (LLC). With an LLC, the liability of the company is only limited to the companies’ assets. Members of an LLC have the opportunity to avoid double taxation and also have the choice of how they want to be taxed (Kubasek et al., 2020). Shania intends to name her business venture “The Gathering Place”. After performing a business availability search on “Colorado Secretary of State business database” it is unfortunate that the name she intends to use is not available in the state of Colorado. The name is currently not registered as a trademark in the state of Colorado however because the name is not available for use Shania cannot use it for her coffee shop. The name she intends to use is quite vague and does not really portray what the business is about. Finding the right name for a new business can have a significant impact on its success. The wrong name can do worse than fail to connect with customers; it can also result in insurmountable business and legal hurdles. In contrast, a clear, powerful name can be extremely helpful in the marketing and branding efforts of the new establishment. The name of a business venture is the main identity of the business and should be well thought of. It should portray what the business is about. Businesses may deliberately choose names that are aimed to influence their customers. For example, a firm might claim to provide high-quality service by including the word “quality” or “best” in its name or to charge low prices by calling itself a “discount” provider. When consumers cannot verify the claims implied by a firm’s name, however, they might dismiss them as cheap talk (McDevitt, 2014, para. 1). Another name that is available in Colorado that portrays the Christian identity as well as what the business is about is “Caffeine Ministry”. This name is currently available and not registered as a trademark in the state of Colorado. Shania should consider “Caffeine Ministry” as a business name since it is available, and it also shows what the business is about. Shania is a Christian who has an honest intention of establishing a Christian coffeehouse near Denver Colorado. She intends to promote cohesion between the Christian community by establishing a common ground where Christians can buy coffee. Taking on the massive challenge of starting a business with the financial risks involved and vast amounts of time and dedication needed requires a sizable leap of faith. It is faith, along with vision, that propels the entrepreneurs to forge ahead when others hold back. Proverbs 16:3 “commit your work to the Lord, and your plans will be established” (English Standard Version). There were several people who showed interest in Shania’s coffeehouse business. Her husband, Marvin, is opened to contribute capital to the business, but he has no interest in participating in its day-to-day operations or management. Shania should accept this form of assistance from her husband. In this case, the husband would serve as a dormant partner and still enjoy some of the profits from the company. It may be wise for Shania not to engage her husband as an active partner if he is not willing to participate in the day-to-day operations or management of the firm. Family businesses may promote unity among family members or create conflicts that can harm the organization and disunite family members (Wielsma & Brunninge, 2019). Colossians 3:18-19 says that “wives, submit to your husbands, as is fitting in the Lord. husbands, love your wives, and do not be harsh with them” (English Standard Version). Married couples in business should respect one another and should not bring their personal lives into the business operations. Her sister, Kelsey, would like to be involved as a new member of the Christian faith, but her husband does not want her to get involved. I do not believe that Shania should allow her sister to be involved in an active role because it would likely cause problems for Kelsey’s marriage. 1 Corinthians 7:39 says “a wife is bound to her husband as long as he lives” (English Standard Version). Regardless of the difference in beliefs between Kelsey and her husband, their union should not have interference from Shania or her business. Perhaps Shania could seek advice from her sister or allow her to participate in a small role that would not take her away from her duties to her husband and children. Shania’s neighbor, Carlos, is a non-Christian who has also expressed an interest in participating in the business as a way to earn extra income. Carlos is a non-believer who believes that Shania’s idea will be popular based on the religious population in their area. It seems as if Carlos is interested in exploiting the faiths of the community to benefit himself. Shania should not allow Carlos to be involved with her business. The Holy Bible teaches us not to enter into a business partnership with non-believers. 2 Corinthians 6:14-15 says that “do not be unequally yoked with unbelievers. For what partnership has righteousness with lawlessness? Or what fellowship has light with darkness? What accord has Christ with Belial? Or what portion does a believer share with an unbeliever?” (English Standard Version). This means that, as Christians, we should not make partnerships with unbelievers as this will defy the will of God. In conclusion, all the people that showed interest in the active operations of Shania’s coffeehouse business seem not to be a perfect fit. “Findings from a nationally representative sample of new businesses show that male-led businesses are more likely to survive than female-led businesses and that the road can be rocky for female entrepreneurs” (Yang, 2019, p. 951). Nevertheless, with God all things are possible. I would recommend she runs the business herself or seek someone from the community or church who has the same faith as she does. This would promote better business partner relationships. References English standard version bible. (2016). Bible Gateway. http://www.biblegateway.com/ (Original work published 2001) Kubasek, N. K., Browne, M. N., Barkacs, L., Herron, D., & Dhooge, L. (2020). Biblical worldview edition of dynamic business law (2nd ed.). N. J. Kippenhan (Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Education. McDevitt, R. C. (2014). “A” business by any other name: Firm name choice as a signal of firm quality. The Journal of Political Economy, 122(4), 909-944. https://doi.org/10.1086/676333 Yang, T., & del Carmen Triana, M. (2019). Set up to fail: Explaining when women-led businesses are more likely to fail. Journal of Management, 45(3), 926-954. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316685856 Wielsma, A. J., & Brunninge, O. (2019). “Who am I? who are we?” understanding the impact of family business identity on the development of individual and family identity in business families. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 10(1), 38-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2019.01.006 BUSI 561 Case Study 1_WKumah-1.docx 2. As a sole proprietor Shania would own an unincorporated business on her own and she would pay personal income tax on profits earned by her business. It is the easiest type of business to establish or take apart due to lack of government regulation. It is a popular choice for sole owners of business, but it can be a challenge in the name she is wanting to use because it is not necessary. Most use their own names. The main benefit is the pass-through tax advantage, the ease of creations and the low fees of creation and maintenance. The lack of government regulation would make it more susceptible to being taken a part. I think the challenge with this type of business is there is no separate legal entity and as a result the business owner is not exempt from liabilities incurred by the business. There is also the unlimited liability that goes beyond the business to the owner, and the difficulty in getting capital funding, specifically through established channels such as obtaining bank loans or line of credit. With her husband willing to contribute towards her business this may be a non-issue although he would be her only investor. She also is considering a Limited Liability Company (LLC) which the main benefit to this would be that her liability would be limited to the amount of their investment in the LLC. She would not be personally liable for the debts of the LLC whereas if she is just sole proprietor, she will be liable. Of course, this would all be dependent on her following the rules associated with an LLC. This is an appealing option and I think it would be a viable option in the future for her but considering that she has her sister and neighbor interested in this business opportunity I think a joint venture would be best. She could establish a contract with both Kelsey and Carlos that would outline money, property, and any assets that they would bring to the business, plus how the business will be managed. This could eventually be structured as an LLC when she sees consistent profits and consumers. Looking through the database search, it is very noticeable that “The Gathering Place” is used in multiple names of other places, so the concern would be that the name she is wanting for her coffeehouse could easily be confused with several other business that are named similarly. This seems to be a very common name for businesses but is not trademarked. I would probably advise Shania to think of a more unique name for her business to avoid this issue. "Strong, successful brands are authentic, and to be authentic the name has to be aligned with what the company is.” (F. Matthew, 2015) I would recommend a name that represents her faith, I would possibly lean towards a biblical name that represents her business ethic, her faith, and the company, in this case a coffeehouse. She will want her coffeehouse to stand out not only to the Christian community but to all consumers as her coffeehouse. The obvious choice to me would be her sister, Kelsey because she is also a Christian and shares is her sister’s faith and values. The potential problem with this would be Kelsey’s husband, he wants her to be a full-time stay-at-home mom and could have objections to her being a part of the business. As we know, the Bible tells us how sacred marriage is and that the importance of wives submitting to their husbands. “Wives submit yourselves to your own husbands as you do to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the savior. Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit to their husbands in everything” (Ephesians 5:22-24, New International Version). Her husband Marvin shown interest in her business and is willing to contribute to the capital of the business but does not want to participate in any of the business operations. This would be good for her as a small business owner, she could use as much capital assistance she can find. Another person to consider is Carlos who is a non-Christian. Looking to the Bible, Paul writes, “do not be yoked together with unbelievers. For what do righteousness and wickedness have in common? Or what fellowship can light have with darkness?” (2 Corinthians 6:14, New International Version). I think the thing to consider is Carlos thinking of the “Christian thing has potential” which makes it look as if Carlos sees this more as marketing than as a business. Shania is looking to opening a Christian coffeehouse, her business success will have a lot to do with her beliefs, values, and overall morals. Her employees will be a direct reflection of her and the coffeehouse. Ultimately her decision will result in having a discussion with all those interested in partnering with her. With her sister, she will need to have the discussion of the implications of marriage and what it should mean. With Carlos, simply her beliefs and his do not align and that he would be a good fit for her business. (Blair, E., Marcum T., Fry F. 2009) The Disproportionate Costs of Forming LLCs Vs. Corporations: The Impact on Small Firm Liability Protection, Journal of Small Business Strategy; Peoria Vol. 20, Iss. 2 Fontana, P. K. (2010). Choosing the right legal form of business : the complete guide to becoming a sole proprietor, partnership, LLC, or corporation . Atlantic Pub. Group. Flamm, Matthew. "The secret to naming businesses; Ookles, anyone? Anyone? Professional branders share naming rights--and wrongs." Crain's New York Business 18 May 2015: 0003. Business Insights: Global. Web. 30 June 2021. Jain, S. (2021, April 2). BIBLICAL BUSINESS NAMES. Give a Good Name. https://www.good-name.org/biblical-business-names/

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