Base on the following post: Could you tell me how you think the posting address
Base on the following post: Could you tell me how you think the posting addresses the Student Learning Outcome? • Critically analyze the philosophical underpinnis of nursing theories. • Critique nursing’s conceptual models, grand theories, and mid-range theories. • Construct a nursing theory that represent current professional nursing practice Using the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms as a Guide, What Would You Look for in an Assessment Tool for Patient Symptoms? Symptoms are at the core of nursing care. Nearly all the work of nurses focuses on symptoms measuring them, assessing factors influencing symptoms changes, and helping patients. The theory of unpleasant symptoms (TOUS) was introduced to address the vital aspects of symptoms experiences to improve the practice and research in nursing (Lenz, 2018). The theory is considered a middle-range theory developed in 1994 and modified in 1997. The theory allows nurses to develop a framework for symptom assessment. Lenz (2018) explains that it comprises three main aspects of symptoms experienced by a patient: factors that influence the symptoms and the experience of symptoms consequences. Symptoms can be multiple or simultaneously measured in terms of intensity, duration, quality, and distress (Srivastava, 2021). Onset and duration imply that symptoms vary in intensity and timing, whereas distress and quality are involved in how the patient feels. Therefore, an assessment tool should address intensity, timing, distress, and quality and, if possible, go beyond patients' symptoms. Another focus of the assessment tool should be the one that evaluates the patients' symptoms in detail. Using TOUS to assess a patient's symptoms, the tool must allow the nurse to evaluate whether the symptoms occurring together have similar or different causes. The tool ought to permit a nurse to categorize influencing factors as either physiological, psychological, or situational (Srivastava, 2021). Physiological factors to look for include age, gender, or other variables related to illness. Physiological factors for assessment include cognition and mood, which strongly influence the symptoms. Situational factors to look for are those external to an individual that impacts the patient's physical and social environment. Thus, a nurse needs to look for a structure tool that provides a comprehensive history and addresses the possible psychological, physiological, and environmental influences. Consequently, the assessment tool chosen have to emphasize the complexity of the symptoms while also indicating possible preventive strategies. This is because the theory explains the three influencing factors that affect symptom’s occurrence and how they are experienced. The symptoms, in turn, affect the performances of an individual, which in the long run influences the experiences of the symptom. It should also provide instructions that promote patient self-monitoring and self-care. The assessment tool must, additionally, explain the four models of TOUS. The first is a nociceptive model of dyspnea evaluated by factors in the environment that correspond individual to illness severity (Miksic et al., 2018). The second is the symptom interpretation model that requires knowledge in understanding and identification of the symptoms. The model of chronic dyspnea monitors the physiological factors. Miksic et al. (2018) explain that the symptom management model is the fourth model, an effective model for control of symptoms. Patient experience of symptoms, control, and outcome of the symptoms are interconnected.

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