Answer the following questions, please provide the page number and location. Des
Answer the following questions, please provide the page number and location. Describe how the lungs and kidneys regulate volatile and fixed acids. Describe how the equilibrium constant of an acid is related to its ionization and strength. Define open and closed buffer systems. Explain why open and closed buffer systems differ in their ability to buffer fixed and volatile acids. Explain how to use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in hypothetical clinical situations. Describe how the kidneys and lungs compensate for each other when the function of one is abnormal. Explain how renal absorption and excretion of electrolytes affect acid-base balance. Classify and interpret arterial blood acid-base results. Explain how to use arterial acid-base information to decide on a clinical course of action. Explain why acute changes in the carbon dioxide levels of the blood affect plasma bicarbonate ion concentration. Calculate the anion gap and use it to determine the cause of metabolic acidosis. Describe how standard bicarbonate and base excess measurements are used to identify the nonrespiratory component of acid-base imbalances. Key Terms: Please provide the definition for the following key terms. acid acidemia alkalemia base base excess (BE) buffer base closed buffer system conjugate base equilibrium constant fixed (nonvolatile) acids Henderson-Hasselbalch (H-H) equation hypercapnia hypocapnia isohydric buffering metabolic acidosis metabolic alkalosis open buffer system paresthesia respiratory acidosis respiratory alkalosis reabsorption standard bicarbonate volatile acid

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