Responses such as “I agree”, “thanks for that information – I didn't know that”, “I experienced that also”, etc. will not receive participation credit. Please do not repeat what is already mentioned in the post. Responses should be a minimum of 150 words and minimum of 2 peer reviewed or scholarly sources with 5 years

Please do not to "cut and paste" answers from your references such as lists, bullet points, etc. This will not receive points for responses that are "cut and paste" even if you provide a citation.

Gomez M. et al, (2019). Together for health: An initiative to access health services for the Hispanic/ Mexican population living in the United States.

Post 3:

Native Americans are the smallest minority group in United State (Russel, 1996), yet it has a multitude of social and health problems. It is matrilineal so women play a crucial role in some of the tribes. They have several values, lifestyles, and taboos from tribe to tribe.

Several things must be considered when interviewing a 19-year-old female in the hospital. The native American lacks trust in the health care providers. (Guadagnolo et al.,2009, Oetzelet al.,2006) It is important to maintain a trusting relationship by initiating a dialog that may make the girl trust the nurse. Communicating to the patient that you care for her, and that confidentiality will be maintained as per her choice is vital. Also maintaining privacy is of paramount importance. Most native Americans are comfortable speaking in their own language, so it is important for the nurse to ask the girl which language she prefers to use. (Hodge and Frederick,1994).

Extended family is very important, and women are the decision-makers, so it is important to ask the girl if she wants someone to be involved in her care. Gaining approval and support for care will aid in the family’s adherence to the plan. It is also important to note that Native Americans are at risk of numerous health and social risks such as Sexually transmitted diseases, adolescent pregnancy, and have the potential to contract HIV (US Department of Health and Human Services,1995).

The native Americans practice preventive healthcare (Gilliland et al.,1999) They may incorporate prayer meetings songs, and sweat lodges into urban care and disease prevention and may emphasize the interrelatedness of spirituality and health care (Piawecki and Sanchez,1994). So nurse should consider asking if the patient has used anything for her fevers.

 When educating this woman, it is important to consider sitting face to face with the patient (Jacobson et al.,1998). However, the nurse should avoid looking straight in her eyes as this is viewed as disrespectful. Natives believe that if one can look you straight in the eye, one can also take away one’s soul (Weave and White,1997). Also, Nurse should be aware that charts, clipboards, and documents could be a barrier to establishing rapport with a native American patient. It is also important to include the family when educating the patient.

Respond to pain differs from culture to culture. It is important to assess the pain of native Americans and offer them pain relief options even if they are not verbalizing or physically expressing the pain (Ramer,1992). It is crucial to listen to patients’ preferences before prescribing potential solutions (Whitbeck,2006). Also because they prefer to rely on their own resources, rather than behavioral health services, they may prefer traditional healing over mainstream services (Chester et al1999, Johnson and Cameroon,2001, Novins et al.,2004, Oetzel et al.,2006), so it is vital to ask her preferences.

There are some programs for native Americans in New Mexico. These include First Nations Community Health Source. It has provided an integrated and culturally competent health delivery system that addresses the physical, emotional and spiritual needs of its clients. Also, the University of New Mexico has a program called Dedicated Mental Health Care System for Native Americans. It provides opportunities for consultations, training, and evaluation partnerships and services.


Cesario, S, K(2001) Care of the Native American Woman: Strategies for Practice, Education, and Research   DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2001.tb01517.x

Community-Focused Care Mental Health Resources for Native Americans (2022)

 Podlogar M.C, Novins, M.D  Quality of care in American Indian child and adolescent behavioral health: A pilot study of patients and family perspectives   doi:10.1037/a0038560

Post 4:

There is an ethical and moral duty to every health care provider to offer the best possible care to every patient. Nurse can use cultural awareness, knowledge, skill and encounter to gather information from patient. It involves the integration of knowledge, attitude and skills that enhance cross-cultural communication and foster meaningful, respectful interaction with others. it helps the nurse to understand the patient better, also to recognize and manage sociocultural issues that happens in encounters.

Islamic community is an unfamiliar culture to me. Important things to remember while interviewing an Islamic patient. It is important for the nurse to know her cultural values, belief, and practices, and appreciate how they may be different from others. The nurse should consider each client as unique, influenced but not defined by their culture. Learn as much as she can about cultural groups in her community. Make an effort to include beliefs and practices from other cultures into her care. The nurse should never let her own biases about people and groups stand in the way of good care. Try to encourage helpful cultural practices into her care and discourage harmful  mindful of her body language, verbal and non-verbal patterns during communication. Learn from her mistakes.

The nurse has to understand important differences in culture and spiritual values of Muslims, including diet, privacy, touch restriction, ideas of modesty and alcohol intake restriction. Islamic faith can influence decision making, family dynamics, health practices and risk. Islamic patient prefers same sex (gender) healthcare provider. knowledge of Islamic beliefs will assist healthcare professional in delivering appropriate healthcare in a culturally sensitive manner and can be accompanied by understanding religious implications, perspectives, on family, health, illness, diet, the influence on traditional medicine and privacy concerns. The nurse should minimize eye and physical contact with patient of opposite gender. e.g. male doctor asking question to female patient in the Prescence of her spouse without response, the doctor should ask her if she want him to talk to her husband. Islam rules prohibits alcohol, non-Halal animal, fats, pork, by-products of pork and any animal that have been slaughtered in the name of another deity. Islam prayer times may interfere with medical care and facility mealtime, so special arrangement needs to be made for home food, if not possible, provide foods like eggs, fruits, seafood, and vegetables.

Health practitioners should be aware of cultural and religious factors to help provide culturally competent and appropriate promotion and education of health services to the Islamic population.

Islamic community center is a health care support system available in the community for Islamic group. The joint commission is an independent nonprofit organization that seeks to improve healthcare among its accredited healthcare members, holds hospital accountable for addressing and maintain patients rights. Joint commission accreditation must have experts in administrative affairs, clinical practice and policy. Amendment 14 of US constitution is a law implemented by the government to provide equal treatment for all without inequality on the basis of social and economic condition.


Statpearls-NCBI Bookshelf Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families. Attum B, Hafiz S, Malik A, et al. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih./gov/books/BNK 499933/

Oakland Islamic Community Center (OICC). 

Joint Commission Standards for Effective Communication. Retrieved from: https://www.jointcommission.org


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